Stanford Professor of Anthropology and Philosophy, Robert Sapolski, Teaches about Depression and distinguishes between sadness/grief vs. serious major depression (warning, he's really smart and interesting : ). Sapolski posits that "depression is the most damaging disease that one can experience," and right now it is the #4 cause of disability in the U.S. full lecture video here
Symptoms of Depression may affect one’s life in any of the following ways; Crying spells or, at the other extreme, lack of emotional responsiveness. Changes in feelings and/or perceptions and inability to find pleasure in anything. Feelings of hopelessness and/or worthlessness. Exaggerated sense of guilt or self-blame. Loss of sexual desire. Loss of warm feelings toward family or friends. Also, changes in behavior and attitudes, lack of interest in prior activities and withdrawal from others. Very often responsibilities are neglected, appearance chenges (less attention paid to self care). Increased Irritability and easily stressed by matters previously taken in stride. There is an overall dissatisfaction about life in general and usually Impaired memory, inability to concentrate, indecisiveness, and confusion. A depressed person has a reduced ability to cope on a daily basis. Increased negativity along with a "glass-half-empty" outlook.
Article for Women from O: Are You Secretly Sad? read this article
Article for Men from Psych Central: "The Weakness Factor (??)" read here
Physical Complaints often associated with Depression :
Chronic fatigue and lack of energy.
Complete loss of appetite, or at the other extreme, compulsive eating.
Insomnia, early morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping.
Unexplained headaches, backaches, and similar complaints.
Digestive problems including stomach pain, nausea, indigestion, and/or change in bowel habits.
Causes of Depression :
Any number of stressors may be involved in depression. These can include personality, environmental, or biomedical factors. Shortages or chemical imbalances in the brain may play a significant role in some cases of depression. Such imbalances may be created by illness, infections, certain drugs (including alcohol and even prescribed medications) and improper diet and nutrition. In general, depression may be viewed as a withdrawal from physical or psychological stress. Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of such stress is a necessary step in learning to cope with depression.
Helping Yourself :
Being honest with yourself about changes in mood or the intensity of negative feelings as they occur will help you identify possible sources of depression or stress. You should examine your feelings and try to determine what is troubling you — relationships with family or friends, financial responsibilities, and so forth. Discussing problems with the people involved or with an understanding friend can sometimes bring about a resolution before a critical stage of stress is reached. Even mild depression should be dealt with if it interferes with your effectiveness. You might also try to change your normal routine by taking a break for a favorite activity or something new — even if you don’t feel like it; Exercise to work off tension, improve digestion, help you relax, and perhaps improve your ability to sleep; Avoid known stressors; Avoid making long-term commitments, decisions, or changes that make you feel trapped or confined — it is better to put them off until you feel you are better able to cope; and See a physician, especially if physical complaints persist.
Helping a Depressed Friend/Family Member :
Since severely depressed individuals can be very withdrawn, lethargic, self-ruminating, and possibly suicidal, a concerned friend can provide a valuable and possibly life-saving service. Talking candidly with the individual regarding your concern for his or her well being will often bring the problems out into the open. As you talk with your friend, the American College Health Association advises the following -- Do not try to “cheer up” the individual. Do not criticize or shame, as feelings of depression cannot be helped. Do not sympathize and claim that you feel the same way as he/she does. Try not to get angry at the person or minimize their experience. Do not tell a very depressed person that they (only) need to go to the gym or exercise - or that they are "feeling sorry for themselves." This is destructive and communicates a serious lack of understanding. Your primary objective is to let the person know that you are concerned and willing to help. If feelings of depression appear to turn to thoughts of suicide, urge the individual to seek professional help. If the person resists such a suggestion and you feel that suicide is likely — seek professional help yourself, so you will know how to best handle the situation.
When Professional Help is Necessary :
Depression is treatable and needless suffering of those who experience it can be alleviated. A mental health professional should be consulted when an individual experiences any of the following circumstances: When pain or problems outweigh pleasures much of the time; When symptoms are so severe and persistent that day-to-day functioning is impaired; and/or When stress seems so overwhelming that suicidal thoughts are present.